The Fontainebleau school (1530-1610) wasn't really a school, but two periods separated by a war, centered around the Château de Fontainebleau (a palace). In these, French painting was influenced by Italian Mannerism style (which had artistic artificially elongated and strained poses). These painters would hang around the palace of Fontainebleau near Paris and did a lot of its decorations.

It's from the second Fontainebleau school, a period when some French artists hung out at the palace at Fontainebleau, making things in the Mannerist style (artistically elongated bodies, strained poses and 

The Fontainebleau schools were periods centered around the

In French painting, the term "Fontainebleau School" (Ecole de Fontainebleau) describes the Mannerist painting and decorative sculpture, as well as the Italianate architecture, produced for the French court - under the patronage of Francis I (1494-1547) and his successors - at the royal Chateau of Fontainebleau (c.1528-1610). From the beginning, the School was inspired byRenaissance art from Italy, which Francis held in especially high regard. As a result, the leading participants in this renaissance of French decorative artwere the Italian artists Francesco Primaticcio (1504-70) and Rosso Fiorentino(1494-1540): French designers and artists would not demonstrate their full potential until the Palace of Versailles was built in the 17th century.

However, a significant amount of the art at Fontainebleau was created by unknown hands, including the famous painting Diana the Huntress (c.1550, Louvre). Its mythological narrative, elegant elongated forms, idyllic landscape, and air of contrived sophistication are entirely typical of the Fontainebleau School.

Caravaggio. dramatic use of lighting he went and painted in rome when a lot of new churches were going up and mannerism had a role of countering the protestantism. hes most famous for shifting from light to dark light without an intermediate a lot of artists copied that

who used dramatic, high contrast lighting called chiaroscuro and also used mannerism, where people were slightly elongated and twisted for artistic emphasis.
baroque, mannerism end of 16th century
(1590s-1610 or smth) yup

Frieze. A broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, especially on a wall near the ceiling, a long horizontal band of decoration, sculpted or paint, usually on a wall near the ceiling.

Humanism. The great intellectual movement of Renaissance Italy was humanism. The humanists believed that the Greek and Latin classics contained both all the lessons one needed to lead a moral and effective life and the best models for a powerful Latin style. They developed a new, rigorous kind of classical scholarship, with which they corrected and tried to understand the works of the Greeks and Romans, which seemed so vital to them.

Mannerism.  As a whole, Mannerist painting tends to be more artificial and less naturalistic than Renaissance painting. This exaggerated idiom is typically associated with attributes such as emotionalism, elongated human figures, strained poses, unusual effects of scale, lighting or perspective, vivid often garish colours. Among the finest Mannerist Artists were: Michelangelo (1475-1564) noted for his Sistine Chapel frescoes such as The Last Judgement (1536-41).

Renaissance. This movement began in Italy in the 14th century and the term, literally meaning rebirth, describes the revival of interest in the artistic achievements of the Classical world. Initially in a literary revival Renaissance was determined to move away from the religion-dominated Middle Ages and to turn its attention to the plight of the individual man in society. It was a time when individual expression and worldly experience became two of the main themes of Renaissance art.

Romanticism. This art movement from 1800-1860 was a response to the rational, logical, gritty, grimy industrial revolution. It celebrated beauty, emotions and awe of nature and its power. It often has tragic heroism and soft lines, all made by idealistic rich guys like Géricault who've never once set foot in a factory.